Archive for Brain health

BPC157 counteracts brain damages and convulsions

The Department of Pharmacology and Pathology,

Medical Faculty University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia published this paper in 2010

“HIGH HEPATOTOXIC DOSE OF PARACETAMOL PRODUCES GENERALIZED
CONVULSIONS AND BRAIN DAMAGE IN RATS. A COUNTERACTION WITH
THE STABLE GASTRIC PENTADECAPEPTIDE BPC 157 (PL 14736)”

 

To demonstrate possible BPC 157 therapy capability as a paracetamol antidote in early and advanced stage of paracetamol toxicity, BPC 157 was applied intraperitoneally or intragastrically (12, 13) (i) prophylactically, immediately after paracetamol or (ii) therapeutically, after 3 hours elapsed.

Presenting the generally known significance of paracetamol toxicity (1-3, 6, 11), this may reveal the role of BPC 157 (i.e., a free radical scavenger (17, 29)) against the early paracetamol lesions development, and even more importantly, when the original damaging process induced by an extreme paracetamol over-dose was highly advanced.

 

Discussion extracts:

“However, we shown that pentadecapeptide BPC 157, as an antiulcer peptide (12-15), may consistently counteract all paracetamol disturbances. This may also indicate that these disturbances are also interconnected throughout BPC 157 background. Moreover, considering the used paracetamol (5 g/kg i.p.)/BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg i.p. or i.g., and effectiveness within µg-ng range) ratio (12, 13), it may be reasonably to assume that these therapy effects may indicate a likely role of BPC 157 in controlling, and then, counteracting one or more causative process(es).”

“What’s more, the premise that when given peripherally, BPC 157 may have a particular beneficial effect on CNS (i.e., markedly less damaged neurons in most severely injuried areas) is in accord with: its neuroprotective properties (22, 34), consistent antagonization of different central disturbances (16-23, 34),…”

“Also, BPC 157 was found to have anti-convulsive properties (16, 17, 21).

Also very recently, with the respect of K+-ATP channels in the substantia nigra as a predisposing factor for seizure development, BPC 157 inhibits K+ conductance in WT HEK293 cells (36).

Besides, after an induced traumatic brain injury in mice, BPC 157 regimens (corresponding to those used in the present study) demonstrated a marked attenuation of damage with an improved early outcome and a minimal postponed mortality throughout a 24 h post-injury period.

Ultimately, the traumatic lesions (subarachnoidal and intraventricular haemorrhage, brain laceration, haemorrhagic laceration) were less intense and consecutive brain edema had considerably improved (22).”

 

“In conclusion, we showed the progressive hepatic encephalopathy, accompanied by severe seizures with a very early onset, in paracetamol-rats (i.e., the full threatening circuit in paracetamol’s acute hepatic toxicity).

This was consistently counteracted by the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, showing this peptide as an effective antidote therapy (i.e., given in µg- and ng-dose regimens in either stage of paracetamol intoxication).

Also, when given parenterally or per-orally (i.e., stable in human gastric juice for more than 24 h (12, 13)), in the same dose-regimens, BPC 157 protected against various agents or procedures that would otherwise have lead to severe liver lesions (29-31) or CNS disturbances (16-23).”

 

“Finally, BPC 157 counteracted a particular overdose toxicity that excided regular paracetamol regimens (i.e., 1, 2, 6, 11), at either of the assessed intervals (i.e., 25 min, 3 hours and 24 hours). On the other hand, the demonstration of paracetamol’s progressive hepatic encephalopathy with severe seizures at least partly overruled the general discordance of NSAIDs’ adverse effects and therapeutic application, paracetamol in particular as previously mentioned (1-10).

Also, the significance of this peptide’s therapeutic benefit against amplified and advanced paracetamol toxicity remains to be further postulated, particularly considering the extensive investigation of gastrointestinal peptides in gastrointestinal and liver physiology (38), physiological mediators in NSAIDs-induced impairment of gastric mucosal defense and adaptation (39), and brain-gut peptide regulation (40). However, very recent novel evidence suggested that just the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 may have possible significance and implications for novel mediator of both Robert’s cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection (41), and thereby potential to counteract paracetamol and other NSAIDs (over)-toxicity.”

 

Source of the paper: http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/04_10/articles/15_article.html

 

Useful Cited References:

  • 12- Sikiric P, Petek M, Rucman R, et al. A new gastric juice peptide, BPC. An overview of the stomach-stress-organoprotection hypothesis and beneficial effects of BPC. J Physiol (Paris) 1993; 87: 313-327.
  • 13- Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Brcic L, et al. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response. Inflammopharmacology 2006; 14: 214-221.
  • 15- Sikiric P, Seiwerth, S, Grabarevic Z, et al. The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure. Eur J Pharmacol 1997; 332: 23-33.
  • 16- Boban Blagaic A, Blagaic V, Mirt M, et al. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 effective against serotonin syndrome in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2005; 512: 173-179.
  • 17- Sikiric P, Marovic A, Matoz W, et al. A behavioural study of the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in Parkinson’s disease models in mice and gastric lesions induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophyridine. J Physiol (Paris) 1999; 93: 505-512.
  • 21- Blagaic AB, Blagaic V, Romic Z, Sikiric P. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2004; 499: 285-290.
  • 22- Tudor M, Jandric I, Marovic A, et al. Traumatic brain injury in mice and pentadecapeptide BPC 157 effect. Regul Pept 2010; 160: 26-32.
  • 23-  Boban Blagaic A, Turcic P, Blagaic V, et al. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 counteracts morphine-induced analgesia in mice. J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 60(Suppl. 7): 177-181.
  • 29- Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Grabarevic Z, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of BPC 157, a 15-amino acid peptide, on liver lesions induced by either restraint stress or bile duct and hepatic artery ligation or CCl4 administration. A comparative study with dopamine agonists and somatostatin. Life Sci 1993; 53: PL291-PL296.
  • 31- Ilic S, Brcic I, Mester M, et al. Over-dose insulin and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Attenuated gastric ulcers, seizures, brain lesions, hepatomegaly, fatty liver, breakdown of liver glycogen, profound hypoglycemia and calcification in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 60(Suppl 7): 107-114.
  • 34- Gjurasin M, Miklic P, Zupancic B, et al. Peptide therapy with pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in traumatic nerve injury. Regul Pept 2010; 160: 33-41.
  • 36- Barisic I, Seiwerth S, Sikiric P, Sindic A. BPC 157 inhibits K+ conductance in WT HEK293 cells J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 60(Suppl. 2): 10.
  • 38- Konturek SJ, Brzozowski T. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. Preface. J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 59(Suppl 2): 3-5.
  • 39- Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Pajdo R, et al. Physiological mediators in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced impairment of gastric mucosal defense and adaptation. Focus on nitric oxide and lipoxins. J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 59(Suppl 2): 89-102.
  • 40- Konturek SJ, Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, et al. Brain-gut and appetite regulating hormones in the control of gastric secretion and mucosal protection. J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 59(Suppl 2): 7-31.
  • 41- Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Brcic L, et al. Revised Robert’s cytoprotection and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Possible significance and implications. Curr Pharm Des 2010; in press.

BPC 157. ATTENUATED GASTRIC ULCERS, SEIZURES, BRAIN LESIONS, HEPATOMEGALY, FATTY LIVER

This trial shows the effectiveness of BPC157 on damages caused by insulin over dosage, which can be very useful for diabetics who inject themselves too much insulin… extracts:

 

OVER-DOSE INSULIN AND STABLE GASTRIC PENTADECAPEPTIDE BPC 157. ATTENUATED GASTRIC ULCERS, SEIZURES, BRAIN LESIONS,  HEPATOMEGALY, FATTY LIVER, BREAKDOWN OF LIVER GLYCOGEN, PROFOUND HYPOGLYCEMIA AND CALCIFICATION IN RATS

 

INTRODUCTION

The general significance of insulin induced ulcers remains not determined. We focused on hyperinsulinemia, deliberate injection of excessive insulin, and possibility that an anti-ulcer therapy with anti-ulcer peptide may be more successful counteracting therapy.

Insulin induced ulcers were long ago described, and related to gastric acid hypersecretion (1, 2).

Thus, to provide some novel intriguing insights, we focused on insulin induced gastric ulcers (1, 2) and then on other disturbances that may be concomitantly induced by insulin application (3-5).

 

We focused on a peptide therapy, using a small, orally active, anti-ulcer peptide (7-11) stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (MW 1419) with very safe profile (LD1 could be not achieved, no side effects in clinical trials (12, 13) stable in human gastric juice (14), effective in trials for inflammatory bowel disease therapy (12, 13) and wound healing (15-18) also in diabetic rats (18, 19).

Importantly, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was more active than recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), stimulating both expression of early growth response 1 (egr-1) gene and its repressor nerve growth factor 1- A binding protein-2 (NAB2) (18).

Thereby, it may be important for cytokine induction, growth factor generation, early extracellular matrix (collagen) formation (18), but also for gluconeogenesis regulation (20).

Finally, alloxan-gastric ulcers in rats and mice may be inhibited by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (21).

 

DISCUSSION

Thus, when given to insulin-rats, BPC 157 would be confronted with the all processes simultaneously occurring that eventually lead to stomach ulcer (1, 2), hypoglycemia and all mentioned disturbances and death in insulin over-dose-rats (3-5). However, we shown that pentadecapeptide BPC 157, as an antiulcer peptide (7-11), may besides stomach ulcer consistently counteract all insulin disturbances and fatal outcome. This may also indicate that these disturbances are also interconnected throughout BPC 157 background. Moreover, considering the used insulin (250 IU/kg i.p.) /BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng/kg i.p. or i.g.) ratio (7, 8), it may be reasonably to assume that these therapy effects may indicate a likely role of BPC 157 in insulin controlling and influence on one or more causative process(es).

 

In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that when one application of very high dose of insulin may induce together stomach ulcer, seizures, severely damaged neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, hepatomegaly, fatty liver, breakdown of liver glycogen with profound hypoglycemia, along with calcium deposition, and finally fatal outcome in rats, all damages were markedly attenuated when BPC 157 was applied.

The same effectiveness when given intraperitoneally or intragastrically (i.e., stable in human gastric juice (14)) may be suggestive that BPC 157 may have also an incretin role in controlling insulin effects (7, 8, 11).

Intriguingly, further studies may show whether standard anti-ulcer agents that prevent insulin-stomach ulcer (1, 2) may also have a broader beneficial effect on other disturbances presented in insulin-rats.

Previously, BPC 157 was shown to counteract toxic effects of other insulin preparations (43).

 

Source for this article: http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/12_09_s7/articles/13_article.html

 

Useful References:

  • 7. Sikiric P, Petek M, Rucman R, et al. A new gastric juice peptide, BPC. An overview of the stomach-stress-organoprotection hypothesis and beneficial effects of BPC. J Physiol (Paris) 1993; 87: 313-327.
  • 8. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Brcic L, et al. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response. Inflammopharmacology 2006; 14: 214-221.
  • 9. Sikiric P, Siwerth S, Grabarevic Z, et al. The beneficial effect of BPC 157, a 15 amino acid peptide BPC fragment, on gastric and duodenal lesion induced by restraint stress, cysteamine and 96% ethanol in rats. A comparative study with H2 receptor antagonists, dopamine promoters and gut peptides. Life Sci 1994; 54: 63-68.
  • 10. Sikiric P, Seiwerth, S, Grabarevic Z, et al. The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure. Eur J Pharmacol 1997; 332: 23-33.
  • 11. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Grabarevic Z, et al. Salutary and prophylactic effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute pancreatitis and concomitant gastroduodenal lesions in rats. Dig Dis Sci 1996; 41: 1518-1526.
  • 12. Veljaca M, Pavic-Sladoljev D, Mildner B, et al. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of PL 14736, a novel agent for treatment of ulcerative colitis, in healthy male volunteers. Gut 2003; 51: A309.
  • 13. Ruenzi M, Stolte M, Veljaca M, Oreskovic K, Peterson J. A multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled phase II study of PL 14736 enema in the treatment of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: A584.
  • 14. Veljaca M, Chan K, Guglietta A. Digestion of h-EGF, h-TGF alpha and BPC 157 in human gastric juice. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 761.
  • 15. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Mise S, et al. Corticosteroid-impairment of healing and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC-157 creams in burned mice. Burns 2003; 29: 323-334.
  • 16. Novinscak T, Brcic L, Staresinic M, et al. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as an effective therapy for muscle crush injury in the rat. Surg Today 2008; 38: 716-725.
  • 17. Staresinic M, Petrovic I, Novinscak T, et al. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. J Orthop Res 2006; 24: 1109-1117.
  • 18. Tkalcevic VI, Cuzic S, Brajsa K, et al. Enhancement by PL 14736 of granulation and collagen organization in healing wounds and the potential role of egr-1 expression. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 570(1-3): 212-221.
  • 20. Berasi SP, Huard C, Li D, et al. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis through transcriptional activation of EGR1 and DUSP4 by AMP-activated kinase. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 27167-27177.
  • 21. Petek M, Sikiric P, Anic T, et al. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates gatric lesions induced by alloxan in rats and mice. J Physiol (Paris) 1999; 93: 501-504.
  • 43. Ilic S, Mester M, Filipovic M, et al. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and insulin induced gastric lesions in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 60(Suppl 2): 40.